McCandlish Heraldry

[Image: McCandlish coat of arms with lion crest and motto scroll; see text for descriptive details.]
McCandlish coat of arms with lion crest
(Image credits23)


At least one McCandlish was armigerous (i.e. had a royally-granted coat of arms) – one blazon, associated with one crest and one motto, are known for certain. None of these are ascribed in heraldic sources to McCandless or other spellings, but this means little as the spellings did not settle down until the late 19th century. The coat of arms does not indicate a noble family or even a knighthood; so far, no evidence has been found of any McCandlishes, McCandlesses, Conlisks, Quinlesses, etc., who were among the major landed gentry, the peerage (barons and earls and dukes and such), or the knightage, of England, Scotland, or Ireland. However, many records from the middle ages to early modern period are long since lost, so a more illustrious past is not impossible, even if all Cuindlis descendants in recent memory have been commoners.

Please note that these are not a “family” crest and coat of arms. Such achievements – despite what heraldic product mongers in the US will try to tell and sell you – belong to specific individuals and are inherited in direct succession. They do not belong to entire families. It is illegal in the UK and several other Commonwealth jurisdictions to sport armorial bearings to which one is not entitled. In the US, doing it is at least in very poor taste. Putting a picture of the arms on the wall for family-history interest is one thing, but putting them on your vehicle is quite another, a public display and declaration that they’re yours. Mottoes are more properly considered a family affair, however.

It is permissible under Scottish heraldry law to devise clan or family badges (sometimes incorrectly called “crests”) based on an individual’s crest, but differenced from it with a surrounding belt and buckle, the motto appearing on the belt. Typically these badges are worn on the cockade of Highland headgear. This is usually done with the crest of the clan chief, but today badges are available for virtually all clans and major Scottish families, sometimes using a crest and motto known to have been held by an amigerous member of the family (there are many “armigerous clans”, those that lack a recognized chief of the name).

The Blazon (Coat of Arms)

Found in Berry (1828)11, Robson (1830)1, Burke (1851)2, and Papworth (1874)18 are the following McCandlish (or M’Candlish) arms, without the original individual owner being fully named: [Image: McCandlish blazon visually rendered; for details see textual blazon description.]
Rendering of the McCandlish blazon
(Image credits23)

Blazon: Or, a galley, her oars in action, and sails furled sable, flags gules; on a chief of the last, three mullets argent.

In plain English, this means: A gold (yellow) shield or escutcheon, with a central figure of a rowed and single-masted ship with sails furled up and oars deployed, all in black, but sporting red flags; a red bar across the top 1/3 of the shield features three silver (white) five-pointed stars. It is very similar to the arms of Gunne of Caithness, except for the ship type and the colours.

This blazon is directly associated with the crest given below. Having a crest, it probably dates to the late 16th century or later, and is certainly as old as 1828 when Berry published it10. In Berry, it was printed in an addendum to previous work; this consisted largely of then-recent additions to the heraldic register, so the blazon probably dates to the 1820s. It could, however, be slightly differenced from earlier arms (which have been lost), e.g. by the addition of the coloured flags. It is not found in heraldry books, consulted so far, earlier than Berry (1828).

Regardless of exact age, it is an English blazon, not Scottish; it appears in none of the major works on Scottish heraldry, e.g. Paul (1895)19, but does in at least four prominent works on English arms (and not marked as Scottish). The galley, also known as the lymphad, is common in Scottish heraldry (e.g. in the arms of the Lordship of the Isles) and to a lesser extent in Irish, but not otherwise. The presence of a Scottish-style antique galley on English arms issued for someone of Scottish provenance indicates the designer of the arms was well aware of Scottish heraldic tradition and used this figure intentionally. Further evidence it is an English not Scottish blazon is that it is not inalienably associated with a motto, which under Scottish heraldry would be a part of the patent of arms and even specified as to position above the crest or below the shield. This is not the case in English heraldry, which treats mottoes as matters of family preference and their placement of artistic preference13. Yet another point of “Englishness” is that the stars are called mullets and not stars24.

The galley represents a type of ship more often called (outside heraldic blazonry) a birlinn. It was a rowed, single-masted vessel with a sail, and was once in common use in the Hebrides and the lochs of the western Highlands (also in Ireland). Whether it was a development from Viking longships has been debated, as sailed-and-oared vessels were known in Britain long before the Viking age, but the Vikings also had a strong cultural impact in Britain and Ireland.

This blazon is quite certain, as it was recorded as still in use, with the crest, by a known historical individual, in 19053 and again in 19114: George Glennie Leslie McCandlish (1873–1925), who became a solicitor (attorney) in London in 1896.12 His family had been living in England since a generation earlier. The arms granted pre-date him and were an English not Scottish patent of arms. There is no evidence to date that he or an immediate ancestor was a knight or baronet; simply an armigerous individual. No McCandlishes appear in British peerage, baronetage, and knightage rolls consulted to date20.

The armigerous family were not major landholders; no McCandlishes or related appear in the massive Visitation of England and Wales16, except one passing mention as a marriage partner in the genealogy of the more prominent Mytton family; this man was George G.L. McCandlish’s father, William (1825–1898). In turn, his father in Edinburgh, also named William (and married to a MacGregor), was probably the orginal grantee of the blazon. Whether the blazon is still in formal use or the grant of it became extinct depends on whether George G.L. McCandlish had a son and that son had a son, and so on, to the present day. This will be a matter for genealogical research.

For an escutcheon that may be McCandless specifically, and a Cavendish blazon often confused as one for McCandlish, see sections below.

The Crest

A crest does not issue without a blazon6. If there were two or more crests discovered, with certainty, for this name then this would necessarily mean there were multiple coats of arms to go along with them. So far, only one of each is certain.[Image: Drawing of a heralic demi-lion (front half of lion) rearing up aggressively, in green]
“A demi-lion vert” crest
(Image credits23)

Berry (1828)11, Robson (1830)1, and Burke (1851)2 provide the following for McCandlish (or M’Candlish):

Crest: A demi-lion vert.

In plain English, this means an upright lion, shown cropped to the waist or haunches up, facing to viewer’s left, with arms raised in a fighting position, and all in green, aside from traditionally red tongue and claws.8

This crest is directly associated with the blazon above, in Berry (1828)11 and Robson (1830)1, the only reliable sources to provide a McCandlish blazon and crest together.

A variant, of the aforementioned George Glennie Leslie McCandlish, was recorded in Fairbairn (1905)3 as: A demi-lion rampant vert. However, this was reverted back to “A demi-lion vert” in a subsequent 1911 edition4, probably because “rampant” was redundant. It means ‘upright’ or ‘rearing up’, and is the only position or attitude in which to have a demi-lion (the superior/anterior half of a lion) in a crest.7

For a crest that may be McCandless specifically, and Cavendish crests often confused as ones for McCandlish, see sections below.

The Mottoes

[Image: William McCandlish antique colour bookplate with motto, coat of arms, and crest]
19th-century bookplate with
motto “Sola nobilitas virtus
Mottoes are not controlled by English heraldic law, and may be adopted or changed at will by owners of arms, so it is possible for there to be more than one for McCandlish over time.

The best-attested we have for McCandlish is the following:

Motto: Sola nobilitas virtus

This is Latin for ‘Virtue alone ennobles’ or ‘The only nobility is virtue’. This is found on the mid- to late-19th-century heraldic bookplate of a William McCandlish featuring the arms and crest described above9; this was probably the father or grandfather of George G.L. McCandlish discussed above. It was also the motto of Hamilton15 and of the Earl of Abercorn14. The variant Sola nobilitat virtus is an attested motto of Hamilton again15 and of Moubray/Mowbray; and the versions Virtus sola nobilitat or nobilitas are mottos of several other families15.

Another more suspect motto claim is Illumino marem et terram (‘Lighting the sea and land’). This was given, in association with the same McCandlish arms and crest, by C.E. McCandless in a self-published genealogy book5 (one full of a great deal of nonsense), but has not been found in use in period materials (bookplates, headstones, etc.), nor any standard heraldic reference works. (The similar Per mare per terras, ‘By sea, by land’, is the motto of Clan MacDonald.) Nevertheless, it was adopted in the truncated form Illumino marem as the ship’s motto of the USS McCandless in 1972. (The patch illustrated here shows the wrong kind of ship; heraldic galleys are single-masted. And it should show red flags.) [Image: Oval military patch reading 'U.S.S. McCandless FF-1084', and featuring the McCandlish/McCandless coat of arms, with lion crest, and the motto 'Illumino Marem']
Ship patch from the
USS McCandless

From the same self-published book5 is another dubious motto claim, of Fideli nil difficile (‘Fidelity is not difficult’). This also has not been found in any works on heraldry or any period materials. In the more sensible Latin form Fideli nihil difficile (‘To the faithful nothing is difficult’), it is a motto of McCarthy.

All that said, because English heraldry does not control mottoes, simple use of any of these mottoes by actual McCandlish/McCandless/etc. families is enough to confer some level of (modern) authenticity to them. Heraldry is not, after all, a dead art of the past, but continues into the future. What is known with certainty is that the first of these mottoes, Sola nobilitas virtus, was in known use for McCandlish at least as early as the 19th century.

For a motto that may be McCandless specifically, and a Cavendish motto often confused as one for McCandlish, see sections below.

Supporters, War Cry, Plant Badge (or Lack Thereof)

No supporters (figures on either side of the shield) are known. Nor is there a known war cry (these are rarely recorded in heraldic listings).

There also is no recorded plant badge – a feature of Highlands clan tradition that one would not particularly expect for a small Lowlands family anyway. Before clan tartans, clans mostly used a particular choice of plant sprig to wear in the cockade of the bonnet to tell one clan from another. People wore whatever tartan and other cloth was available to them.

Possible Separate McCandless Coat of Arms

[Image: Photo of detail from a McCandless grave marker; see text for descriptive details.]
Heraldic detail from early 18th c.
McCandless grave marker in N. Ireland
(by Seamus Bellew21)
Found on a grave marker in the cemetery of St Columb’s Cathedral in Derry/Londonderry, Northern Ireland, is another purported heraldic achievement, evidently belonging to one Thomas McCandless (ca. 1746–1822) and thence to one of his sons – a family of tanners and curriers.

No colour information or proper blazon are known. The escutcheon (shield) features a prominent cross dividing the field into four quarters, in each of which are diagonally crossed scrolls (or something similarly shaped). The crest, that of an everyday armiger not a knight or peer (it is on a wreath or torse not a coronet or chapeau of rank), features two arms holding up another scroll. The left supporter is a horse rampant, and the right supporter is a bull rampant. The motto is “God is our hope”.

Some low-end Internet vendors of heraldic knicknacks show for McCandless a green (vert) cross on a gold/yellow (or) shield (without the crossed scrolls), but there is no established source for these colours.

The 2017 rediscoverer of this carving, Seamus Bellew, indicates that he was not able to find the blazon in the usual sources21 (which would likely be Ireland-specific, not British). It is thus not clear whether this is a legitimate coat of arms or simply decoration on a gravestone. If it is legitimate, and if it does prominently feature scrolls (they could actually be tanning implements of some kind), then it would be tantalizingly suggestive of the Ó Cuindlis family of medieval scribes, and could represent the first and so far only suggestion of a familial and not just etymological connection between Conlisk, Quinlisk and related families descended from them in and around Galway, and the more northerly Mac Cuindlis (McCandless, McCanless, etc.) families of Ulster.

However, the authenticity is suspect, because it shows supporters – a feature reserved for peers and knights of particular orders, in both English and Irish heraldry25, which does not agree with the commoner’s torse.

Possible Separate Conlisk/Quinlisk Coat of Arms

One American vendor of heraldic products claims26 that there is a coat of arms for Irish Conlisk/Quinlisk/etc. (it treats all such spellings as the same name). It does not provide a proper blazon, but illustrates a field of blue (azure), with gold (or) crossed pastoral staves (crosiers); the crest appears to be a bishop’s mitre, proper.

However, this is not a reliable source, so this must be taken with a grain of salt, and these seem like ecclesiastical armorial bearings; it is possible they are those of Cornelius Ó Cunlis, a 15th-century bishop (see the “Notables” page).

Cavendish Confusion

Many times the Scots-Irish [Mc]Candlish has been confused with the southern English Ca[ve]ndish both as to the name (as detailed here) and as to the heraldry. This confusion can finally be traced to a specific source, and laid to rest.

In Berry (1828)11, we find another blazon and two crests attributed to “Candlish or M’Candlish”: Sable, three bucks’ heads, cabossed, argent attired or, crest: A snake, nowed, proper; and to “Candlish”, crest: An ostrich’s head, collared and ringed … [tinctures not specified]. There’s just one problem: These arms are very well established as belonging to Cavendish (which also occurs as de Cavendish, Cavendishe, Cavindith, Caundis[h], Caundysh[e], Candish[e]); and both crests, in complete form, are also of Cavendish/Candish22. In the earlier heraldic work by Edmonson (1780) we find the bucks’ heads coat of arms properly ascribed to Candish (i.e. Cavendish), not “Candlish”.27

Fairbairn (and no one else) repeated Berry’s assertions, and then compounded the error. In both his 1905 and 1911 volumes3, 4, he ascribed to “Candlish, or M’Candlish” the family motto of Cavendish: Cavendo tutus (‘By caution safe’ or ‘Safe by being cautious’). This motto is also that of Allmack/Awmack, Cruikshank/Cruckshanks, Hardwick, and Waring, so it is not exclusive to Cavendish. However, it would be a much stronger motto candidate if found in some other source that did not mis-attribute Cavendish arms to McCandlish, or if it had been found associated with McCandlish in any period materials at all other than Fairbairn.

There are only three possible explanations for this sore confusion between families from opposite ends of Great Britain who simply have superficially similar names. It cannot happen under the laws of heraldry that two different people of different families would be granted the same arms.

1.  Berry (or an unknown source he used) simply confused Scottish Candlish with English Candish, ascribing Candish arms to Candlish and failing to note they were already arms of Candish/Cavendish. This is the most likely explanation. Errors in such works were frequent (as evidenced by the long errata and corrigenda published for them in successive volumes). Burke clearly thought it was an error, as he left these bogus “Candlish” blazon and crests out of his Encyclopædia of Heraldry2 and General Armory15, despite otherwise including almost everything from Berry; same with Papworth (1874). (Fairbairn, unfortunately, repeated the errors in his own works much later3, 4. We know he did this indiscriminately because he repeated the “broken” ostrich-head crest, with the colour information missing, without repairing it.) In Berry’s weak defense, the name McCandish has occasionally occurred, derived from McCandlish, and if truncated further to Candish would be coincidentally the same in form as the Candish derived from Cavendish (much as Grimes exists from different derivations in both Ireland and England). But Berry was a heraldry expert and should have recognized the famous arms of Cavendish when he was reattributing them to “Candlish” and caught himself in the error before publishing. Sames goes for Fairbairn.

2.  Some Cavendish/Candish relatives could have actually started using the spelling Candlish, independently of the Scottish family. This is enticing a possibility until one notices that aside from Berry, and copy-catting by Fairbairn, there is no record in any of the usual sources for any southern English family of Candlishes, much less one connected to the Cavendishes, a ducal family of great reknown and, like Spencer and Churchill, a very well-studied pedigree. If there were a Candlish cadet branch of Cavendish, it would be very well known by now and be found in multiple genealogical and other sources, not just in Berry/Fairbairn. Even if this hypothesis were true, Berry and Fairbairn were still in error, by attributing “M’Candlish” to the Ca[ve]ndish blazon and crest in question. It would be an easy enough mistake to make, if they had found a real south-English Candlish family of Cavendish extraction and they were also aware of the name McCandlish in Scotland. But there was never, and logically would not be, a name “M’Cavendish”, so M’Candlish could not possibly derive that way. No matter how you slice it, Berry and Fairbairn were confusing unrelated Scottish and English nomenclature and heraldry.

3.  Some Scottish [Mc]Candlish/Candish family, perhaps after relocating to England, could have put on airs and tried to associate themselves with Cavendish/Candish, including by usurping their arms, prominently enough to get recorded in Berry but not enough to attract negative attention under the laws of heraldry (which admittedly did not have much enforcement). This is a slim possibility, and again there is no evidence for it aside from Berry/Fairbairn. However, it would not be the only time that unrelated people have tried to pass themselves as Cavendishes; some few Irish Cavanaghs and O’Kevanes had gone by Cavendish, a “super-anglicization” that MacLysaght charitably described as “rather pretentious”. What we know of McCandlishes moving south during this timeframe and associating with families of the English landed gentry is the aformentioned William McCandlish and his son George G. L. McCandlish; what we see is not usupration of others’ honors but establishment of their own armorial bearings. So, of the three hypotheses laid out here, this is the weakest, and the first the strongest.17

Regardless, it is clear that these are Ca[ve]ndish not [Mc]Candlish arms, crests, and motto. For reference, see the footnotes22 where is listed all known Ca[ve]ndish arms and crests, and sources for them. If you run across one of these, you can be certain it is not McCandlish/McCandless or related. This includes a shield with three stags heads, and crests that consist of a wolf head, a knotted snake, or an ostrich head, all of which have sometimes been mis-attributed to [Mc]Candlish.


1: Robson, Thomas; The British Herald, or Cabinet of Armorial Bearings of the Nobility and Gentry of Great Britain and Ireland From the Earliest to the Present Time, Vol. II; Sunderland: Turner & Marwood; 1830; at entry “M’Candlish” (pages are unnumbered).

2: Burke, John; Burke, John Bernard; Encyclopædia of Heraldry, or General Armory of England, Scotland and Ireland, 3rd ed.; London: Henry G. Bohn; 1851; at alphabetical entries (pages unnumbered).

3: Fairbairn, James; Fairbairn’s Book of Crests of the Families of Great Britain and Ireland, 4th ed., Vol I; London: T.C. & E.C. Jack; 1905.

4: Fairbairn, James; Butters, Lawrence; MacLaren, Joseph (ed.); Fairbairn’s Crests of the Leading Families in Great Britain and Ireland and Their Kindred in Other Lands; New York: Heraldic Publishing Company; 1911.

5: McCandless, C.E.; The McCandless Clan; High Point, North Carolina: self-published; undated, ca. first half of 20th century. Right from its title it is off to a bad start, falsely claiming the family qualifies as a clan. It contains numerous dubious assertions, including a raft of heraldic ones that do not agree with any of the major works on British heraldry.

6: Fox-Davies, Arthur Charles; Brooke-Little, J.P. (ed.); A Complete Guide to Heraldry; Bonanza Books; 1969; p. 245.

7: “[T]he term ‘a demi-lion’, unless otherwise qualified, may always be assumed to be a demi-lion rampant couped.” Fox-Davies, Arthur C.; Brooke-Little, J.P. (ed.); A Complete Guide to Heraldry; Bonanza Books; 1969; p. 144.

8: “A lion rampant and any other beast of prey is usually represented in heraldry with the tongue and claws of a different colour from the animal. If it is not itself gules [red], its tongue and claws are usually represented as of that colour, unless the lion be on a field of gules. They are then represented azure, the term being ‘armed and langued’ of such and such a colour. It is not necessary to mention that a lion is ‘armed and langued’ in the blazon when tongue and claws are emblazoned [painted] in gules, but whenever any other colour is introduced for the purpose it is better that it should be specified.” Fox-Davies, Arthur C.; Brooke-Little, J.P. (ed.); A Complete Guide to Heraldry; Bonanza Books; 1969; p. 135.

9: McCandlish, William; bookplate; ca. 1860-1890; in the special collections of the Newark Public Library, New Jersey; This is better evidence than a listing in any heraldic catalogue, since it proves actual use by a family member and the presumptive owner of the coat of arms.

10: Fox-Davies, Arthur Charles; Brooke-Little, J.P. (ed.); A Complete Guide to Heraldry; Bonanza Books; 1969; p. 252.

11: Berry, William; Encyclopædia Heraldica, or Complete Dictionary of Heraldry, Vol. IV: Supplement to the Dictionary of Arms; London: Sherwood, Gilbert and Piper; 1828; at alphabetical entries (pages unnumbered)

12: Pollock, Frederick (ed.), The Weekly Notes, Pt. 1; London: Incorporated Council of Law Reporting for England and Wales; 1896; pp. 213–214; At Google Books.

13: Fox-Davies, Arthur Charles; The Art of Heraldry: An Encyclopædia of Armory; London & Edinburgh: T.C. & E.C. Jack; 1904; p. 327.

14: Berry, William; Encyclopædia Heraldica, or Complete Dictionary of Heraldry, Vol. I; London: Sherwood, Gilbert and Piper; 1828; in “Mottoes” chapter (pages unnumbered)

15: Burke, John Bernard; General Armory of England, Scotland, Ireland and Wales, London: Harrison; 1884; p 1181, 1184.

16: Howard, Joseph Jackson; Crisp, Frederick Arthur; Visitation of England and Wales; 21 vols.; privately printed; 1893–1921. The passing mention of a McCandlish was a William McCandlish (1825–1897) of Edinburgh and later Westminster, appearing in a Mytton pedigree on p. 113.

17: MacLysaght, Edward; The Surnames of Ireland, 6th ed.; Dublin: Irish Academic Press; 1997 [1957]; p. 41.

18. Papworth, John W.; Morant, Alfred W. (ed.); An Alphabetical Dictionary of Coats of Arms Belonging to Families in Great Britain and Ireland, Vol. II; London: T. Richards; 1874; p. 1090.

19. Paul, James Balfour; An Ordinary of Arms Contained in the Public Register of All Arms and Bearings in Scotland; Edinburgh: William Green & Sons; 1895.

20. E.g.:

  • Dod, Charles Roger; The Peerage, Baronetage, and Knightage of Great Britain and Ireland; London: Whittaker and Co.; 1844. And editions of 1854, 1855, 1856, 1864, 1865, 1866, 1872, 1904, 1905, 1908, 1920, 1921, and 1923.
  • Debrett’s Illustrated Peerage and Titles of Courtesy of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland; London: Dean & Son; 1876.
  • Fox-Davies, Arthur Charles; Armorial Families: A Complete Peerage, Baronetage, and Knightage; Edinburgh: T.C. & E.C. Jack; 1895.
  • Debrett’s Peerage, Baronetage, Knightage, and Companionage; London: Dean & Son; 1903.

21. Bellew, Seamus; “Heraldry in the graveyard at St Columb’s Cathedral Derry / Londonderry”;; 19 August 2017;; accessed 2022-05-25. Used with permission.

22. Cavendish (Candish, Caundyshe, etc.) arms:

  • Argent, three piles wavy gules.
  • Argent, three piles wavy, two from the chief, and one rising from the base between them, gules.
  • Argent, two bendlets, the upper sable, the lower gules.
  • Gules, a chevron ermine between three pineapples or.
  • Gules, three piles wavy argent.
  • Or, a lion gules, tail forked.
  • Or, a lion rampant gules, tail forked.
  • Or, a lion coward gules, tail forked.
  • Sable, a chevron between three standing dishes argent.
  • Sable, a chevron ermine, between three cups argent.
  • Sable, a chevron or, between three covered cups argent.
  • Sable, a chevron or, between three uncovered cups argent.
  • Sable, a chevron or, between three standing dishes argent.
  • Sable, three bucks’/stags’ heads argent, a mullet or.
  • Sable, three bucks’/stags’ heads argent attired or.
  • Sable, three bucks’/stags’ heads caboshed argent.
  • Sable, three bucks’/stags’ heads cabossed argent attired or.
  • Sable, three bucks’/stags’ heads embossed argent attired or, a bonier of the second.
  • Sable, three bucks’/stags’ heads caboshed argent attired or, within a bordure of the second.
  • Sable, three cross croslets or.
  • Sable, three cross croslets fitchée or.
  • Sable, three crosses botonée fitchée or, two and one.
  • Sable, three crosses fitchée or.

Cavendish (etc.) crests:

  • An ostrich’s head azure, gorged with a collar sable, rimmed or, and charged with three bezants.
  • A serpent/snake nowed fessways proper.
  • A serpent/snake nowed proper.
  • A serpent/snake nowed vert.
  • A wolf’s head couped azure, collared or.
  • A wolf’s head couped azure, collared and ringed or.

Cavendish (etc.) motto: Cavendo tutus.


  • Edmondson, Joseph; A Complete Body of Heraldry, Vol. I; London: T. Spilsbury; 1780; pp. 35, 52, 101, 105.
  • Edmondson, Joseph; A Complete Body of Heraldry, Vol. II; London: T. Spilsbury; 1780; at alphabetical entries (pages unnumbered).
  • Fox-Davies, Arthur Charles; Armorial Families: A Directory of Gentlemen of Coat-armour, Vol. 1; 7th ed.; London: Hurst & Blackett; 1929; pp. 334–335.
  • Burke, Bernard; A Genealogical and Heraldic History of the Landed Gendry of Great Britain & Ireland; Vol. 1; 6th ed.; London: Harrison; 1879.; pp. 285–286.
  • Willement, Thomas; A Roll of Arms of the Reign of Richard the Second; London: William Pickering; 1834; p. 42.
  • Berry, William; Encyclopædia Heraldica, or Complete Dictionary of Heraldry, Vol. II: Dictionary of Arms; London: Sherwood, Gilbert and Piper; 1828; p. 238.
  • Berry, William; Encyclopædia Heraldica, or Complete Dictionary of Heraldry, Vol. IV: Supplement to the Dictionary of Arms; London: Sherwood, Gilbert and Piper; 1828; at alphabetical entries (pages unnumbered).

23. Heraldry images based on:

  • Overall coat of arms, including crest: Modified version of art purchased (and specifcally licensed for web use) from Bonanza seller “Coat of Arms Family Crest”: (not recommeded; it was modified because the image was deficient and erroneous in several ways).
  • Galley: Modified version of ship element from art, under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license, by Wikimedia Commons user “Czar Brodie”:
  • Motto scroll: Modified element from art, under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license, by Wikimedia Commons user “Lumia1234”:

24: Fox-Davies, Arthur Charles; The Art of Heraldry: An Encyclopædia of Armory; London & Edinburgh: T.C. & E.C. Jack; 1904; p. 222.

25: Fox-Davies, Arthur Charles; The Art of Heraldry: An Encyclopædia of Armory; London & Edinburgh: T.C. & E.C. Jack; 1904; pp 317–319.

26: “Cunlisk History, Family Crest & Coats of Arms”,; 2022; (accessed 2022-06-01). It bears repeating that this is a US-based heraldry bric-a-brac vendor, not a reliable source.

27. Edmondson, Joseph; A Complete Body of Heraldry, Vol. II; London: T. Spilsbury; 1780; at alphabetical entries (pages unnumbered).

Last modified 2022-06-16 by SMcCandlish.